Both moles and voles are active in many landscapes. Moles are generally carnivores and feed on grubs, earthworms, insects, and other animals in the soil. They seldom feed on plants or plant parts. Voles are generally herbivores and feed mostly on plant parts such as roots, stems, tubers, rhizomes, and bulbs. The University of Kentucky offers Managing Mole Problems in Kentucky, which contains information on control. Cornell University publications Moles and Voles of New York State and Meadow Vole and Pine Vole contain additional information.
Moles will generally leave raised, shallow tunnels in your yard along with “volcano-shaped” piles of dirt. Voles (or meadow mice) do not leave either one. Instead, you see small (about 1.5 inch in diameter) open holes, with pathways often extending from them above ground.
Control and management methods for these two species is quite different, so it is important that you be able to distinguish between the two.